Typical Industrial Building - Part 1
Typical Industrial Building
Most small to medium-sized industrial, general purposes
buildings offer similar features and characteristics. For example, a
free-standing structure typically includes both a main industrial area and an
office area. The industrial area must have a single floor with clear height
typically between 16 and 25 feet, or higher if required., a poured concrete
slab-on-grade floor (6” or greater thickness depending on need) a steel frame
roof using open we steel joists (OWSI), a built-up roof with stone ballast,
steel strip windows, metal doors and overhead doors for loading docks. The
office area is typically 15 to 20% of total industrial area and is either
contained within the building (along with a mezzanine level about the standard
height office ceiling) or extends out from the primary structure (sometimes
referred to as a box on box design).
Floor, wall and ceiling finishes will vary, but at the
basic level would include sealed concrete floors in the industrial area, with
vinyl or ceramic tile for the office. Interior partitions would normally be
drywall on metal studs, along with acoustic ceiling tile. Heating would
probably be gas fried radiant tube heating, with a separate roof top
heating/cooling unit for the office area. Lighting is typically metal halide
high bay fixtures for the industrial area, fluorescent fixtures for the office
and high intensity discharge (HID) fixtures for exterior perimeter lighting.
The main service would involve a 3 phase incoming service with a step-down
transformer. Three phase incoming service is required for larger motors usual
to industrial needs.
Selected terminology relating to features/characteristics
of industrial properties are highlighted alphabetically.
A bay is an unfinished area located between a row of
columns and the bearing wall. A bay is usually; the smallest area into which a
building floor can be partitioned. Bay depth refers to the distance from the
bearing wall to a row of columns within a building, or the distance from one
row of columns to another.
Bay depth is an important consideration in the layout of
office, retail and industrial buildings. In retail office leasing, the term
takes on a precise meaning when referring to bay measurements in the
construction or outfitting of office space. The bay depth refers to the
measurement from the inside wall (tenant’s side) of a corridor wall to the
exterior wall or glad. Bay depth is important in deriving the most efficient
use of space, as is bay height.
CLEAR SPAN/CLEAR HEIGHT
The span refers to the amount of floor area that is clear
of interference from columns and support walls, and is also of importance to industrial
users. The extent of clear span is particularly key to industrial operations
including manufacturing, warehouse, distribution and storage facilities. An
excellent example of a large clear span, steel building is a modern airport
Clear height refers to the unobstructed distance from
floor to ceiling. Light industrial and warehouse facilities normally range
between 15 and 30 feet clear height.
to install one or more cranes for lifting and moving heavy items is vital to
many industrial users. Cranes are generally classifies in one of three
categories for industrial purposes.
Bridge crane: Operates on a system of horizontal rails
and requires column-free areas within the structure. Bridge cranes (often
several operating in sequential order) can work on a series of related tasks by
moving the product along the work floor.
Gantry crane: Best d4escribed as a portable bridge crane
operating on wheels, can be moved about the work floor area or in outside yard
areas. The word gantry refers to the framework making up the crane.
Jib crane: Has an arm attached at an angle to a rotating
mast that permits 360⁰ swiveling around that mast. In many instances, the jib
crane is attaches to a structural column in the building that restricts the
swivel to a half circle.